What is mass? Did you know that physicists do not have a good answer? Did you know that physicists do not know if mass is fundamental or emergent? That they cannot calculate the mass of a particle? The field of physics has been stuck on these and other concepts for quite a long time. Unfortunately, physicists have also made a mess of the mass terminology and mathematics.

It turns out that **mass is an emergent phenomenon** largely related to the orientation of the orbital planes in the Noether core in a gravitational field of spacetime aether or while traveling through spacetime aether at velocity v. The configuration of the Noether core dipole energies and orbital planes is the same in these two cases and that is why the Equivalence Principle holds even though the situations are quite different. Einstein sort of pulled a rabbit out of the hat with the Energy-Momentum equation which is essentially the Equivalence Principle in action.

Let’s back up and refresh ourselves that some form of the Noether engine appears to be re-used in all standard model structures as well as the particles of spacetime aether which generally have very low relative energy to the matter-energy structures that are flying about. This makes it evident why the Noether engine is so influential.

The Noether engine is essentially responsible for the strong force in all its forms. Who knows what kind of a dance the dipoles of the three Noether engines in a proton or neutron are doing? QCD does! The theory of Quantum Chromo Dynamics. We call the dipoles gluons in this case. Still the conceptual groupings of the patchwork of theories help us understand the geometry. Understanding these geometries will be valuable input for closed form mathematical solutions as well as simulations.

If we zoom into the structure of the Noether core we see that each instantiation of a Noether core is described by the characteristics of its dipoles which are at vastly different energy scales in low apparent energy environments, like a solar system. Each and every Gen I Noether core has three dipole frequencies, three orbital radii, and three different energy levels. Add to that spin, chirality, and other quantum numbers which also nee to be mapped to the architecture. That potentially means that Noether cores could have incredible diversity.

Yet we know that standard model particles can transmute from one to another so I presume that there are certain Noether core patterns that are stable otherwise how could all the interchange happen for the transmutation? For example, it seems logical to speculate that in a steady state Noether core, the three energy levels maintain some sort of energy relationship. A big clue is the Koide Formula. One interesting Ph.D thesis topic would be a theory of how the dipoles self-synchronize and shift energy. What is the exact mechanism? Keep in mind that Noether cores redshift. As the outer dipole redshifts and loses energy, it seems logical to hypothesize the inner dipoles will adjust energy and redshift as well so as to maintain synchronization.

When the standard matter particle structure is at rest, it’s mass is determined by the apparent energy. Apparent energy is related to the energy of each dipole as well as the angles of the orbital planes to each other. As work is performed on the standard matter particle, not only does the structure accelerate, but the Noether core is receiving energy, which is changing the orbital frequencies of the dipoles. Furthermore, **the higher the velocity through the spacetime aether**, the more the planes of the dipole orbitals converge towards a planar structure. Ultimately, the formula for mass will emerge from this electromechanical phenomena of Noether cores.

Perhaps this gets down to what has been so challenging for physicists to realize. Einstein is not best undertstood by starting at the grand scales of the cosmos and black holes and singularities and lensing and even the precession of Mercury around the Sun. Einstein is best understood based upon the discrete implementation of positive and negative |e/6| point charges orbiting one another. That basic dipole chasing its tail is the first sign of structure emerging from the highest energy, zero entropy, state. No doubt relativistic high energy dipoles, orbiting slowly in such a contracted radius are emitted in many reactions. In one form we know these electrino:positrino dipoles as the tau neutrino.

The beauty of nature is that dipoles of lower energy and higher radius will capture dipoles of higher energy with smaller radius. Once point charges and energy spread out, and apparently because the universe has 3D space as a foundation, nature seems to like to dedicate quite a lot of spatial volume to particles of standard matter and spacetime aether that are made of generation III Noether energy cores. Note that I worded that carefully, because if we are instead accounting for point charges accumulation by concentation in structures, I suspect that we might be quite surprised by the concentrations of point charges at extremely small scales.

On top of all that, these dipoles click off energy in terms of angular momentum in h-bar j-s. So there you go. GR and QM are unified.

Are you clear on what just happened? NPQG is predicting that the total energy of generation I fermions includes the energies of generation II and III, which are largely shielded by the outer Noether core dipole. That means that your average generation III fermion has far more total energy than apparent energy. Apparent energy in relation to the spacetime aether is what causes mass. Check out the energy levels in the generation II and III fermions. Yes, that is a LOT MORE energy than physicists realize. See the top quark at 173,100 MeV/c^{2} vs. it’s charm captor at 1,280 MeV/c^{2} vs. the ultimate captor, the up quark at 2 MeV/c^{2}. Are you comprehending this prediction?

We see the revealing of shielded energy in many aspects of physics and one is in the mass of a nucleon. The sum of the generation I quark masses is the order of 1% of the nucleon mass. Somehow the dance of the quarks in the nucleon is revealing more of the shielded energy as apparent energy.

We already discussed how velocity through the spacetime aether causes the planes of the Noether core to become aligned and more so as the particle approaches the local speed of light.

A fourth place we see the revealing of shielded energy is in particle colliders. Given that these collisions can reveal structures like the top quark with their high energy this conclusions should be evident. However, I have found physicists who insist the energy all comes from the rest and relativistic mass of the proton. My guess is that they are incorrect.

Once the point charge era physics is sorted out to the simplest possible explanations of nature, researchers and entrepreneurs will develop precise simulation models which track point charge by point charge via (perhaps) monte-carlo simulation on key reaction points. Essentially we need to build up some immense library that we can use to train artificial intelligence that can help us understand the individual electrinos and positrinos as they fly through each reaction. What is their exact path? Once you understand why the different reactions happen by tracking every electrino and positrino then we will begin to see how to influence and control the reaction. *By the way, it is not lost on me that our current era Ai could help us solve what is essentially a differential equation.*

These simulation models do not on the surface appear to be difficult at the highest energies or for that matter, any energy. There may be a simplifying model for spacetime aether for instance. Even at the scale of the reactions that make the largest atom (the largest atom has fewer than 10,000 point charges) the number of objects to track is quite reasonable. However, there will also be situations where the challenge involves tracking each individual particle in the spacetime aether as well as the dynamical and fluctuating *virtual* permittivity and permeability of space. I say virtual, because it seems to me that void space itself does not impose any limits on electromagnetic fields but rather that the point charges can be modeled as if there is a permittivity and permeabilty in the aether.

My current inclination is that the closest approach of point charges is determined by the point charges themselves and their actions on each other.

I am not closed minded to the idea that space itself could impose limits on permittivity and permeability but I have not visualized any implementation mechanism, so I am dis-inclined to favor that idea.

I admit that I think the model is more natural if space is conceived of as a three dimensional void and there is an absolute time that is forward moving only. It seems that absolute 3D space and absolute time, each with no known beginning or end are the fundamental background of our universe. As far as we can observe, the space and time background is populated by a large scale parameter of point charge density as well as a second large scale parameter of the average energy per point charge, including both kinetic and electromagnetic forms.

*J Mark Morris : Boston : Massachusetts*

p.s., Here is Alexander Unzicker at his best, pointing out the travesties of physics.

## 6 replies on “Mass”

Interersting note, some particles in the standard model have mass, whereas these particles acc. to the theory shouldn’t have mass. These are the vector bosons, Z0, W+ and W- which are the force carriers of the weak nuclear force. This has lead to to Higgs mechanism to explain why these particles have mass by interacting with the Higgs field. Apart from that a lot of the mass of subatomic particles and atom come from their binding energies. So, physics does know where mass comes from.

Thanks. I just updated my depiction of standard matter particles as orbitals of point charges. Check these (https://johnmarkmorris.com/2021/06/15/new-physics-in-pictures/) out, including the architecture of nature picture and the Noether core component, which I think is reused in every standard matter particle at least once. By orbital I truly mean orbital in the general sense, where the Noether core orbitals seem to me like they would tend to circular at rest, and perhaps elliptical when in motion. And of course, they are just point charges, so reactions happen and point charges exchange and fly off and new reactions happen. And the personality charge orbitals which have six point charges are more like the wave equations we are familiar with. Before I respond to your comment on mass, I need to say that bosons seem to have all their orbitals more 2D or flat-ish. That would explain why bosons don’t follow the Pauli exclusion principle. So I think a photon is like a neutrino and an anti-neutrino coupled and counter-rotating and in offset planes that are orthogonal to the direction of travel. That would explain a lot of the characteristics of photons, including the E-M wave and polarization and Malus’ law. My thinking is that since I am hypothesizing all particles in the standard model are reusing these Noether cores and that these cores are the things that do the accounting for energy that all particles in the SM will redshift. i.e., their cores lose energy. Ok, here’s the big leap of intuition, I think that these planar photons eventually redshift so much that they don’t have enough energy to retain their planar orientation of all the dipoles and the orientations start changing and essentially the photon puffs up a bit and drops out of light speed and becomes a spacetime aether particle. My reverse engineering of what I think is really happening is that spacetime is an aether of relatively low apparent energy Noether cores and perhaps other detritus and maybe even some particles those tired photons and tired neutrinos might form. I know that is a lot to process. You have to sort of pause your belief in current physics interpretations and suspend disbelief when evaluating my thought experiments. It’s a lot to ask. However, I think I am finally getting to the point where my geometrical model is far enough along that I will try to figure out the math and that should be helpful. In any case, I was just listening to Dr. Don Lincoln of FermiLab talking about how the Z bosons actually have a whole distribution of masses. That’s to be expected in my architecture, because mass seems to be related to how much of the apparent energy in a particle is expressed and interacting with the aether. I think this aether of old tired Noether cores acts like a floating A/C ground for the universe and that is how gravity is mediated. So I guess that would make it the implementation of the Higgs mechanism. When I said physics doesn’t know where mass comes from, I meant they don’t yet know the implementation of nature that yields the Higgs and the behaviour of the particles interacting with the Higgs. This is one of the best things about this point charge model is that it seems to be extremely explanatory, at least thought experiment wise. And it yields surprising results, like the idea that the Gen II and Gen III fermion energies are actually contained in Gen I but shielded and not apparent. That’s kind of a big deal actually, especially if we could tap into that energy for positive use cases. Hope I didn’t go on too long.

If I understand you correctly and interpret the ontolohy of your physics system correctly, these point charges of which “everything is made” (including the geometry of spacetime, and the cause of gravity) are all there is, and are massless? And what about the aether, is that another substance, or does this aether exist in the form of those point particles in an unbound state. Why don’t you formulate the equations of motions for your structures, so we ca actually calculate if your description of reality matche that of known observations? I see only words, no actual math. How could a dipole structure be stable, as acc. to standard electromagnetic theory it would radiate away energy. Etc.

I’m envisioning the aether as a sea of ultimately redshifted Noether engines (and perhaps other point charges in some relatively low energy structures) with 2.8 K apparent temperature in low gravity space. I’ll have to look up your point about radiating away energy, I’m not familiar with that. And yes, as mentioned in other replies, I understand that math is preferable for the physics knowledgeable, but until I get a really solid feel for the geometry, it seems pointless to start trying to do the math. However, I do feel like I am making advancements rapidly as of late, so who knows. Probably when I have a good feel for how the quantum numbers are implemented geometrically and how color charge is implemented then will be the time to attempt the math. There is another independent, Noam Why, and his UCV math kind of looks like it may help me with the personality charge layer and the electroweak math. I’m working through that as well.

And as an add on question, if these point particles are massless, acc. to standard physics theory they should travel at light speed. How is that in your theory? Why do sructures like electrons and proton have mass in your theory and the photon not, even though they are made from the same constituents, only in different configurations.

My reasoning is that the orientations of the three orbital planes in a Noether engine change with velocity. When we do work to accelerate a particle we are causing the oribital planes to align. It is as if the particle squishes towards the point where all three dipoles would be orbiting in the same plane or closely adjacent planes. That fits with neutrino oscillation if those three planes don’t reach a stable point and sort of just oscillate relative to one another. Next, it appears to me that the outer lower energy dipole can shield the energy of the inner dipoles. Like a faraday cage. I haven’t got it entirely worked out yet, but it seems like the amount of apparent energy has a lot to do with the mass. So as you can see we have velocity of the particle, orientations of the three dipole orbital planes, and the frequency of each dipole. That is a lot of degrees of freedom. If I go with that reasoning, then even isolated point charges would have a mass according to their apparent energy. Still a lot to work out here. Thanks for the questions! I need to expand my to do list!